Below you will find abstracts for talks presented at INSQT Workshop 1. These will be added on a continuous basis.
Micro-fabricated components for cold-atom sensors
James McGilligan, University of Strathclyde
This talk will highlight our recent advancements in micro-fabricated vacuum cells for laser cooling, passive pumping measurements and on-chip wavelength referencing
Prediction of in-situ CubeSat performance using high fidelity radiation modelling techniques
Arpad Lenart, University of Strathclyde
Space based quantum technologies are essential building blocks for global quantum networks. However, the optoelectronic components and devices used are susceptible to radiation damage. The SpooQy-1 CubeSat mission demonstrated polarization-based quantum entanglement correlations using avalanche photodiodes for single-photon detection. Here, we report the increasing dark count rates of two silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes observed throughout its 2 year orbital lifetime. As a means of diagnosing the unexpected trends in the increase of dark counts, we implement a high-fidelity radiation model combined with 3D computer aided design models of the SpooQy-1 CubeSat to estimate the accumulated displacement damage dose in each photodiode. Using these results, we were able to support the claim that differences in radiation shielding was a major contributor to the observed in-orbit data. This illustrates how radiation modelling can have applications beyond conventional lifetime estimates for low-earth orbit CubeSats.
Optical ground station R&D at UWA
David Gozzard, University of Western Australia
The University of Western Australia is developing technologies for robust amplitude- and phase-stabilized optical links between the ground and space with applications in fundamental physics experiments, applied science, and optical communications. This talk will provide an overview of the status, capabilities, and performance of these ground stations with respect to supporting space quantum technologies. This talk will also touch on the quantum information and computing research undertaken at UWA.
Modelling the performance of SatQKD missions
Jasminder Sidhu, University of Strathclyde
Satellites are viewed as integral in supporting the development of global quantum networks given small losses in signal transmission through vacuum. The successes of the Chinese satellite MICIUS have demonstrated key milestones for space-based quantum communication and have motivated the development of small-satellite quantum key distribution (SatQKD) missions. We have developed an open-source software suite that provides performance modelling of SatQKD missions. This talk will highlight recent updates to this software and provide examples of how it can support the design of SatQKD missions.
Roland Lammegger, Graz University of Technology
The measurement of planetary magnetic fields allows to get far-reaching information about their inner structure or to make changes in the geological layers measurable. For these purposes, a precise and long-term stable measurement of the magnetic field is required. The Coherent Population Trapping Resonance Magnetometer developed for use in space fulfills this requirement.
The talk will present some development aspects of this type of magnetometer for two space missions.
Quantum sensors for terrestrial and future space gravity missions
Waldemar Herr, Institute of Quantum Optics
Quantum sensors utilising atom interferometry offer new perspectives for terrestrial and future space gravity missions. Atom interferometers have proven long-term stable measurements, complementing or in future even replacing established sensor concepts. To strongly advance their capabilities the use of Bose-Einstein condensates with subsequent matter-wave collimation as a well-defined input state enables extended times of free fall and the suppression of error terms. Dedicated setups already showed operation on ground, in microgravity environments and tested concepts for space missions. In this contribution, we will introduce our new DLR institute, present the state of the art in interferometers with Bose-Einstein condensates, especially microgravity activities, and discuss concepts for the implementation in future space missions.
ESA Activities and Perspectives on Quantum
Olivier Carraz, European Space Agency
Several studies related to Cold Atom Interferometry technologies for gravimetry mission were initiated at ESA, mainly focusing on technology development for different instrument configurations (gravity gradiometers and satellite-to-satellite ranging systems) and including validation activities, e.g. two successful airborne surveys with a CAI gravimeter. A new study has been initiated this year, the Quantum Space Gravimetry for Earth Mass Transport (QSG4EMT) with the focus on QSG mission architectures that monitor Earth’s mass transport processes and development of QSG user requirements.
A technology roadmap will also be outlined for potential implementation of a Quantum Space Gravimetry Pathfinder mission before the end of this decade, aimed at improving state of the art accelerometers in the low frequency band and pave the way to developing a Quantum Mission for Climate in continuity and enhancement of NGGM/MAGIC.
Quantum Technologies at RAL Space
Tristan Valenzuela, RAL Space
In this talk we will present our efforts to bring Quantum Technologies to a space environment. Some of the engineering challenges will be di
In addition to the presentation of our current activities in the field we will give a brief introduction of RAL Space, our capabilities and heritage in space instrumentation.
Embedded cold atom accelerometer for atmospheric drag measurement
Isabelle Riou, Teledyne e2v
Below 600 km, drag is the largest source of uncertainty for satellite and debris orbit prediction. With an increasing number of satellites in low-Earth orbit, accurate observations of the atmospheric mass density are required to improve models of the thermosphere with applications in satellite lifetime predictions, collision risk assessment and avoidance.
We are developing a compact cold atom accelerometer for atmospheric density missions, to be launched in mid to late 2020s. These quantum sensors are based on atom interferometry. A cold atom sample is generated using the combination of an atom-chip and resonant laser beams. The cold atom cloud is then diffracted using a set of three laser pulses, generating a matter-wave interferometer. The phase-shift at the output of the interferometer is proportional to the acceleration of the free falling atoms with respect to the satellite, which is converted to density observations.
Teledyne e2v is producing a space suitable accelerometer physics package that can be embedded in small satellites such as a 16U cubesat or a SkimSat. It includes an atom-chip for producing magnetic fields local to the atoms in vacuum developed by RAL Space. It will address some of the engineering challenges associated with the launch and the required low SWAP and will be integrated into a breadboard system capable of acceleration measurement in order to test interferometry schemes suitable for measurements in micro-gravity.
Atmospheric drag measurement can be the world’s first cold atom Earth observation mission and be a pathfinder for a future large-scale cold atom gravity mission.
James Bateman, Swansea University
Optomechanics is a diverse field exploring interaction of optical and nano-mechanical degrees of freedom. While the canonical system is a cavity with a movable mirror, there is a huge diversity of experiments. Levitated Optomechanics replaces the mechanical spring with the optical dipole force of a focused laser and, depending on the goals, may or may not include an optical cavity. Building on techniques from cold atom physics, levitated optomechanics boasts impressive demonstrations and strides towards the quantum regime. This talk will cover the optomechanics activities in Swansea, touch on matterwave interferometry and the space-borne MAQRO proposal, and describe efforts to improve versatility, stability, and noise suppression in these systems.
The evolution of silicon photonics as a guide for maturing quantum sensors
Lia Li, Zero Point Motion
Building quantum sensors suitable for space is a goal shared by both academic and commercial entities. However, the engineering challenges in transitioning laboratory experiments into space hardened devices can be intense and not always achievable without support from subcomponent and software suppliers. Using the evolution of silicon photonics, I will explain how open-source photonic integrated circuit design kits and the nurturing collaborative ecosystem of foundries and laser suppliers has generated a new wave of commercial photonic devices, including Zero Point Motion’s optical inertial sensors. If we focus on developing platforms across design, manufacturing, testing and subcomponent integration suitable for quantum technologies in space, we could transform the pace of R&D and prevent creating bubbles of trapped knowledge. This talk aims to highlight successful strategies in the silicon photonics domain and how they could be applied to our own INSQT community.
Advances in Payload and Ground Segment Development for Satellite‐based Quantum Communications
Costantino Agnesi, University of Padova
The development of mature satellite quantum communication is of crucial importance for a successful deployment of global scale quantum network. Satellite-based quantum technologies is also an incredible opportunity to test and study the fundamental aspects of our physical theories at scales and environments inaccessible in laboratories. In this talk I will discuss the efforts made by the QuantumFuture research group in this field. The development of the ground segment will be first analyzed, discussing the technological and technical breakthroughs that led from the first single photon exchange between a satellite and ground station to the implementation of a Gedankenexperiment along a satellite-ground channel which extends for thousands of kilometers in space. Then, a novel approach for the development of polarization-encoded quantum state sources compatible with the requirements of a satellite payload will be discussed.
Engineering Photonics for Space
Gerald Bonner, Fraunhofer Centre for Applied Photonics
This presentation will give an overview of Fraunhofer CAP’s work on photonics systems for various space applications, considering the challenges that must be address in the space domain and opportunities for future development of space quantum technologies.
Innovation in the Quantum Landscape from an industry-academia collaboration perspective
Sonali Mohapatra, Craft Prospect/NQCC
In this talk, I will briefly share my journey of innovation in the space-quantum landscape. I will highlight with examples the benefits of working in an industry-academia collaborative environment to push forward and sustain the quantum innovation pipeline. The talk will wrap up with a forwards look ahead at opportunities the quantum landscape presents and what we can do to support it.
Building Quantum Networks for Ireland
Deirdre Kilbane, Walton Institute/SETU/Waterford
Quantum communications provides unique capabilities that promise to be valuable tools in data security against cyber threats both classical and quantum in nature. We are advancing operational quantum enhanced networks throughout Ireland. Due to the complex and novel nature of these systems, however, much progress is still needed in moving from small-scale deployment and lab experiments to a large-scale production network. IrelandQCI aims to address this challenge and in doing so create an innovative quantum technology ecosystem for public, industry and academic sectors in Ireland.
Satellite based communication at Bristol
Siddarth Joshi, University of Bristol
Quantum communication exploits the fact that “an unknown quantum state cannot be duplicated”, to ensure mathematically perfect key exchange between two parties. However, this very law that ensures communication security also prevents us from using amplifiers to overcome loss. Interestingly, free space optical links to a low earth orbit satellite are a lower loss than a few hundred kilometres of optical fibre. Hence satellites are currently the most promising method of building a global scale quantum network. We present our efforts to build a compact decoy state protocol based transmitter payload for a cube satellite and the corresponding optical ground station receiver. Our approach involves a high speed dual wavelength transmitter for enhanced key rates and a mobile receiver to test suitable locations proximal to population centres.
Responsive Operations for Key Services (ROKS): a Quantum Key Distribution CubeSat Mission
Jack Wood and Ahren McTaggart, Craft Prospect
Modern encryption methods are under threat from advances in quantum computer technology, and future-proofing encryption will require new methods of generating and transmitting encryption keys. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is one such method, whose security relies on the quantum mechanical properties of light. Limitations on transmission distance through optical fibres and terrestrial free-space mean QKD from Earth orbit is a critical element in creating a scalable global network. This talk will outline the benefits of performing QKD from space and detail ROKS – a demonstrator mission focused on delivering QKD from low-Earth orbit in a 6U CubeSat form factor.
QUBE – Towards Quantum Key Distribution with Small Satellites
Adomas Baliuka, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich
Quantum key distribution (QKD) based on satellites, as demonstrated by the Chinese satellite MICIUS, is a promising approach for global scale secure communication in future quantum safe network infrastructures. The QUBE missions will show that global quantum key exchange can be achieved much more economically using small satellites, which can be game-changing for QKD, provided that payloads operate within the strict size, weight and power constraints. The first mission will test two highly integrated QKD sender modules and a quantum random number generator in a three unit CubeSat. The optical communication terminal OSIRIS (effective aperture 20 mm) will provide a link from a low earth orbit (LEO, 500 km) to the optical ground station (80 cm telescope) at the DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen. After component tests (e.g. vibration, thermal vacuum, radiation), the fully assembled satellite is currently being tested as a whole prior to its integration into a CubeSat deployer. Characterization measurements show a total source-intrisic QBER as low as 1.7%. Given the small aperture of OSIRIS and an expected link loss of about 50 dB to 60 dB, the first mission will not yet demonstrate secure key exchange. This will be achieved in a follow-up mission, which is in its planning phase, making use of the knowledge gained from the first mission.
Unambiguous quantum state elimination of pairs of quantum states with applications in quantum cryptography
Ittoop Puthoor, Heriot-Watt University
A single quantum measurement cannot perfectly determine the state of a quantum system; however it is possible to perfectly rule out certain states. Here we implement a quantum state elimination measurement, which unambiguously rules out two of four pure, non-orthogonal quantum states. This is a generalised quantum measurement with six outcomes, where each outcome corresponds to excluding a pair of states. Quantum state elimination is of foundational interest, relating to the so-called reality of the wave function, as well as having applications in quantum cryptography and quantum communication. We explore different possible optical realisations of this state elimination measurement using linear optics and generate a realization that uses a minimum number of optical elements. Our experimental implementation uses single photons, with information encoded in a four-dimensional state using optical path and polarisation degrees of freedom. This state elimination measurement could be used for an XOR oblivious transfer protocol, where a receiver obtains either the first, second, or XOR of two bits a sender sends and the sender not knowing which bit was received. Moreover, one could also envisage a novel quantum key distribution schemes employing state elimination, where the final bit value cannot be thought of as created at the sender and transmitted to the receiver, but is only realised once the receiver’s measurement is complete.
Towards a Space-Based Quantum Internet
Mustafa Gündogan, Humboldt University
Reaching truly global distances for quantum networking is a tremendous challenge: even the land-based quantum repeaters are limited to around few thousand kilometers in range. Space-based links, on the other hand, are limited to line-of-sight distance of the orbiting satellite (~2000 km for low earth orbit). In this talk I will introduce the idea of space-based quantum repeaters that rely on heralded generation and storage of entangled states. I will show that these architectures can provide up to three orders of magnitude faster entanglement distribution rate across global (>10^4 km) distances. I will further discuss the memory requirements and other approaches that rely on physically transporting the qubits with ultra-long lifetime quantum memories.